春秋战国时期，各国为了互相防御，各在形势险要的地方修筑长城。 据《左传》记载：公元前656年，“楚国方城以为城”，这是关于长城的最早的记载。秦始皇灭六国统一中国后，为了防御北方匈奴的南侵，于公元前214年将秦、赵、燕三国的北边长城予以修缮，连贯起来。故址西起临洮(今甘肃岷县)，北傍阴山，东至辽东，这就是俗称的“万里长城”，至今还有遗迹残存。此后汉、北魏、北齐、北周、隋各代都曾修筑过长城。八达岭、居庸关一带的长城，位于北京延庆县军都山上，为国家重点风景名胜区和全国重点文物保护单位。居庸关是万里长城的重要关口，地势险要，气势恢宏，为古今重要战略要地。明长城东起河北山海关，西至甘肃嘉峪关，全长6 700千米，是中华民族的象征，世界八大奇观之一，八达岭段长城城墙沿脊建筑，墙体以巨大城砖筑成，城墙高8.
The Great Wall of China The Great Wall of China is called the "Ten thousand Ii Great Wall" in Chinese. In fact, it' s more than 6 000 kilometres long. It is one of the wonders of the world. It has a history of over twenty centuries. The Great Wall is wide enough at the top for five horses or ten men to walk side by side. Along the wall are watchtowers, where soldiers used to keep watch. Fires were lit on the the towers as a warning when the enemy came. Today the Great Wall has become a place of interest not only to the Chinese but to people from all over the world. Many of them have come to know the famous Chinese saying: "He who does not reach the Great Wall is not a true man." [参考译文] 中国的长城 中国的长城汉语中常叫作“万里长城”。实际上它长 6 ooo多公里。它是世界上的奇观之一。 长城有两千多年的历史。长城上面很宽，足够五匹马或10个人并排而行。沿城墙有许多烽火台，过去常有士兵驻守。敌人来时，就点燃烽火，以通知其他士兵。 今天，长城不仅对中国人，而且对来自全世界各地的人们来说都是一处名胜。其中许多人都已知道这句中国名言：“不到长城非好汉”。
Brief Description In c. 220 B.C., under Qin Shi Huang, sections of earlier fortifications were joined together to form a united defence system against invasions from the north. Construction continued up to the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), when the Great Wall became the world's largest military structure. Its historic and strategic importance is matched only by its architectural significance.Long DescriptionKnown to the Chinese as the 'Long Wall of Ten Thousand Li', the formidable defensive structures built to ward off invasion of the Celestial Empire by barbarians is called the Great Wall or the Wall of China by Europeans. The principle of these extraordinary fortifications goes back to the Chunqiu period (722-481 BC) and to the Warring States period (453-221 BC).The construction of certain walls can be explained by feudal conflicts, such as that built by the Wei in 408 BC to defend their kingdom against the Qin. Its vestiges, conserved in the centre of China, antedate by many years the walls built by the Kingdoms of Qin, Zhao and Yan against the northern barbarians around 300 BC. Beginning in 220 BC, Qin Shi Huang, the founder of the Empire of the Ten Thousand Generations, undertook to restore and link up the separate sections of the Great Wall which had been built in the 3rd century BC, or perhaps even earlier, and which stretched from the region of the Ordos to Manchuria.Towards the west, he had extended the fortifications, the first cohesive defence system of which significant vestiges still remain in the valley of the Huanghe all the way to Lanzhou shortly before the accession of the Han dynasty (206 BC). During their reign the Great Wall was extended even further, and under the emperor Wudi (140-87 BC) it spanned approximately 6,000 km between Dunhuang in the west and the Bohai Sea in the east. The danger of incursion along the northern Chinese border by the federated Mongols, Turks and Tunguz of the Empire of the Xiongnu, the first empire of the steppes, made a defence policy more necessary than ever. After the downfall of the Han dynasty (AD 220), the Great Wall entered its medieval phase. Construction and maintenance works were halted; China at that time enjoyed such great military power that the need for a defence policy was no longer felt.It was the Ming Emperors (1368-1644) who, after the long period of conflict that ended with the expulsion of the Mongols, revived the tradition begun by Qin Shi Huang. During the Ming dynasty, 5,650 km of wall were built. To defend the northern frontier, the Wall was divided into nine Zhen, military districts rather than garrisons. At strategic points, fortresses were built to defend the towns, passes, or fords. The passageways running along the top of the wall made it possible to move troops rapidly and for imperial couriers to travel. Two symbolic monuments still proudly stand at either end of the wall - the First Door under Heaven at Shanhaiguan, located at the wall's eastern end, and the Last Door under Heaven at Jiayuguan, which, as part of the fortress entirely restored after 1949, marks its north-western end.This complex and diachronic cultural property is an outstanding and unique example of a military architectural ensemble which served a single strategic purpose for 2,000 years, but whose construction history illustrates successive advances in defence techniques and adaptation to changing political contexts. The purpose of The Great Wall was to protect China from outside aggression, but also to preserve its culture from the customs of foreign barbarians. Because its construction implied suffering, it is one of the essential references in Chinese literature.The Great Wall of the Ming is, not only because of the ambitious character of the undertaking but also the perfection of its construction, a masterpiece. The wall constitutes, on the vast scale of a continent, a perfect example of architecture integrated into the landscape. During the Chunqiu period, the Chinese imposed their models of construction and organization of space in building the defence works along the northern frontier. The spread of Sinicism was accentuated by the population transfers necessitated by the Great Wall.That the great walls bear exceptional testimony to the civilizations of ancient China is illustrated as much by the tamped-earth sections of fortifications dating from the Western Han that are conserved in Gansu Province as by the admirable and universally acclaimed masonry of the Ming period.
The Great Wall(长城)The Great WallThe Great Wall of China is considered to be the only man-made project visible from the moon. Although it was once thought to have been built entirely during the Qin Dynasty between 221 and 208 BC, it is now believed to have been started earlier.The 15-foot-high, 25-foot-wide, 1,500-mile-long structure was undoubtedly built to keep out invading enemies. To the common people of the empire, who had been forced to build the wall, it was not worth it, however. The wall, and other public works completed by the Qin Dynasty,had caused great losses of wealth and human life in the country. As a result,an angry population rose up in rebellion against the Qin Dynasty,and in 207 BC the Han Dynasty began.Because of its rich history and magnificent appearance,the Great Wall attracts tourists, scientists, and historians to this day and will continue to do so for generations.长城中国的长城被视为惟一能从月球上看到的人造工程。人们曾认为长城全部修建于公元前22l到208年的秦朝，但现在人们相信长城的修建要开始得更早。修建这一高15英尺，宽20英尺，长1500英里的建筑无疑是用来抵御外敌入侵的。但对帝国中被迫修建长城的百姓而言，实在不值得。秦代建筑的长城再加上完成的其他公共工程给这个国家的财产和生命带来了巨大损失。结果，一群愤怒的人揭竿而起反对秦朝，公元前207年汉朝开始。长城有着悠久的文化和宏伟的外观，因此直到今天还在吸引着旅游者、科学家和史学家前来参观，而且在今后许多年仍会如此。
：长城有多少年的历史了？How long is the history of the Great Wall? B：大约有两千年多年了，长城是春秋战国时期修建的。这段八达岭长城是明代又重修的，到如今也有四五百年了。About 2000 years. The Great Wall was built in the period of the Spring and Autumn and the Warring states. The Badaling section of the Great Wall was rebuilt in the Ming Dynasty and has a history of around 400 or 500 years.A：长城有一万里吗？Is the Great Wall 10000-li long?B：长城东起河北省的山海关，西到甘肃省的嘉峪关，全长五六千里，有的地方城墙有好几道，加起来有一万二千多里，所以叫“万里长城”。The Great Wall starts from the Shanhaiguan Pass in Hebei Province in the east and ends in the Jiayuguan Pass in the west. The total length is between 5 and 6 thousand li. Some parts have many lines of walls, and in total it is a little over 12000-li long, so it is called the 10000-li Great Wall.